A: Cyclocross is bicycle racing that happens during the Fall and Winter. It is a mass-start event, so all racers start together and race on the course at the same time. Courses include grass, pavement, sand, dirt, mud and a variety of natural and man-made obstacles that force riders to dismount and run with, or carry their bikes.
A: The most common name you'll encounter is Dutch: "Veldrijden" (literally "riding in fields".)
A: Cyclocross was originally created as a way for road cyclists to keep fit during wintertime. Riding a different bike on different terrain keeps training fresh, and the variety of obstacles, mud, and grass help build bike handling skills.
A: A typical cyclocross course is about 3 kilometers, give or take, which results in elite athletes usually racing for 6-10 laps.
A: Grass, pavement, dirt, sand are all common. Depending on the weather, add snow and/or ice sometimes. Larger races sometimes have "flyover" ramps or "over/under" ramps where riders pedal up, over, and down a bridge that spans the course, passing below.
A: Almost every cyclocross race has a pit, or technical area, where you can get repairs or even change bikes. At higher levels, riders have a dedicated pit crew to help them. In races that have a lot of mud, riders come into the pit and take a fresh, clean bike. Their mechanic cleans the dirty bike while the rider is out on the course. Changing wheels is slow, so in the event of a flat tire riders just change the entire bike!
More sophisticated riders have multiple wheels with different tire tread shapes, so they can even change from a slick to a knobby tire so suit changing weather or course conditions. Mechanics even tweak tire pressure slightly up or down to suit their rider's preference.
If you're an amateur, you might not have a dedicated pit crew, but you can still put a spare bike, tools, or wheels in the pit so you can keep racing in the event of a mechanical.
A: At almost every level of cyclocross, both professional and amateur, races are of an unknown distance. You'll know the time for your category, for example, "50 minutes", but not the distance. A race advertised as 50 minutes means that the winner should take about 50 minutes to complete the race. Officials watch the first lap or two to figure out how long most riders will take, and then post lap cards indicating 4, 3, 2, 1 laps to go.
A: The final lap of the race. Usually the organizer rings a bell as each riders crosses the finish line with one lap remaining.
A: Yes. Some riders use embrocation to protect exposed skin and keep warm.
A: Cyclocross bikes have a design inspired by road bikes, but a road bike isn't suitable for 'cross. Cyclocross bikes have room for bigger, wider tires, more mud clearance, a higher bottom bracket (to clear obstacles) and lower gearing compared to a road bike.
A: You don't need a cyclocross bike to get started. Your local series almost certainly permits mountain bikes, touring bikes (probably anything with two wheels) in the beginner category. With the explosion in gravel bikes currently happening, those are great alternatives to a cyclocross-specific bike, too. Give it a try.